A New Challenge to a Warfare Theodicy
Shandon L. Guthrie (Ph.D.)

Some Christian philosophers and theologians contend that an actual Satan along with his demons are (possibly) responsible for at least some natural evils (including animal suffering) prior to the creation of the first human beings. Theologian Gregory Boyd utilizes this approach in what he calls a “warfare theodicy” wherein such beings are construed as originating causes of (some) natural evils. Other thinkers, such as C. S. Lewis and Michael Murray, have pointed to such a theodicy as a mere possibility in blunting the problem of animal suffering as an instance of the problem of natural evil. In this paper, I challenge the warfare theodicy qua theodicy on inductive grounds and argue that there is no reason (outside of an ad hoc attempt to protect a warfare theodicy) to think that this appeal is justified since evil spirits likely do not directly interact with the physical universe in the ways necessary for a warfare theodicy to handle such natural evils.

Full Text: PDF     DOI: 10.15640/ijpt.v5n2a4